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The adaptive immune system (also known as “acquired” or “specific” immune system) uses highly specific immune cells and specific antibodies to fight foreign aggressors. The adaptive immune system also contributes to the immune system’s memory. As the name indicates, the adaptive immune system evolves during one’s lifetime.
Anaphylaxis is a severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that can develop rapidly. It is also known as anaphylactic shock. Symptoms include dizziness, loss of consciousness, laboured breathing, swelling of the tongue and breathing tubes, blueness of the skin, low blood pressure, heart failure and death. Immediate emergency treatment is required for this type of shock.
An antibody is a protein produced by the body’s immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. An antibody titre is a measurement of how many antibodies an organism has produced.
An antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. An antigen may be a foreign substance from the environment, such as chemicals, bacteria, viruses, food or pollen. It may also be formed inside the body, as with bacterial toxins or tissue cells.
Colorimetric analysis is a method of determining the concentration of a chemical element or chemical compound in a solution with the aid of a colour reagent. The intensity of the developed colour correlates with the concentration of the tested item. The method is widely used in medical laboratories.
The complement system (see entry below) is made up of about 30 proteins that work together to assist, or “complement,” the action of antibodies in destroying antigens. Complement proteins, which cause blood vessels to become dilated and then leaky, contribute to the redness, warmth, swelling, pain and loss of function that characterise an inflammatory response.
The complement system is a complex set of more than 30 circulating blood proteins that work together to promote and control immune and inflammatory responses. It helps to fight infection by destroying foreign pathogens like bacteria and viruses or other antigens. The activation of the complement system is mandatory in an inflammatory immune response.
Crohn’s Disease belongs to a group of conditions known as Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). It is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract and can lead to abdominal pain, severe diarrhoea, fatigue, weight loss and malnutrition. Most commonly, Crohn’s affects the small intestine and the beginning of the large intestine. However, the disease can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus.
An ELISA test (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) uses components of the immune system and chemicals to detect immune responses in the body, for example to infectious microbes. ELISA is a common test system in laboratories; it involves an enzyme (a protein that catalyzes a biochemical reaction) and an antibody or antigen.
An enzyme deficiency is the failure of the body to produce an enzyme or underproduction of that enzyme. Enzyme deficiencies may lead to metabolic diseases and digestive problems.
Erythema nodosum (also called EN) is a type of skin inflammation that is located in a certain portion of the fatty layer of skin. Erythema results in reddish, painful tender lumps most commonly located in the front of the legs below the knees.
During the elimination phase, you strictly avoid all the foodstuffs that you have elevated IgG levels for. The foods that you are allowed to eat are rotated.
Fibromyalgia is a chronic disorder that causes muscle pain and fatigue. People with fibromyalgia have “tender points” on the body. These points hurt when pressure is put on them. The patients may also have other symptoms, such as trouble sleeping, stiffness, headaches, tingling or numbness in hands and feet or problems with thinking and memory (sometimes called “fibro fog”). It is not yet known what causes fibromyalgia.
Histamine is a compound involved in local immune response and many physiological functions. The best known effect is release of histamine during an allergic reaction, causing the typical itching, sneezing, wheezing and swelling or even anaphylactic shock. Histamine also occurs naturally in certain foods. In the event of histamine intolerance, histamine-rich food can cause reactions similar to real allergic reactions and hypotension.
Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, is a condition in which the arteries have persistently elevated blood pressure. It can lead to damaged organs as well as several illnesses such as renal failure (kidney failure), aneurysm, heart failure, stroke, or heart attack.
Hypotension is any blood pressure that is below the normal blood pressure expected for an individual in a given environment. Hypotension or low blood pressure is the opposite of hypertension. It is a relative term because blood pressure normally varies greatly with activity, age, medications and underlying medical conditions.
Immunoglobulin E, a special class of antibodies that play a role in immediate allergies
An IgE food allergy is the classic type I allergy: the immune system produces specific IgE antibodies which lead to an immediate allergic reaction. In contact with an allergen, IgE induces a massive release of histamine. Symptoms reach from severe swelling to anaphylactic shock.
Immunoglobulin G is the main antibody found in humans. It is part of the adaptive immune system (see below). When an IgG antibody recognizes an antigen, it forms a so-called Circulating Immune Complex (CIC) and attracts phagocytes to destroy this CIC. IgG is divided into four sub-classes, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 (see below). When an IgG binds to its antigen, the shape of the IgG changes and can be recognised by IgG receptors (see below)
IgG4 is a particular sub-class of total IgG. In contrast to all other IgG sub-classes, IgG4 has no inflammatory properties and is linked to type I allergy. IgG4 is the “antidote” of IgE, avoiding IgE to bind to the allergen. Thus, IgG4 avoids allergic reactions. IgG4 is not involved in delayed food allergy. IgG4 can neither activate the complement system nor attract phagocytes.
An IgG food allergy, also called type III food allergy or delayed food allergy, is when the immune system produces specific IgG antibodies which can lead to inflammatory processes. The symptoms appear on a delayed basis, up to three days after the consumption of a trigger food, making it virtually impossible to identify a trigger food without testing.
IgG receptors are placed on the surface of immune cells and recognise if an IgG is bound to an antigen. When an IgG-antigen complex binds to the IgG receptor, the immune cascade in the immune cell is induced.
Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are proteins produced by plasma cells. Immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE) play an essential role in the body’s immune system. They attach to foreign substances, such as bacteria, and assist in destroying them.
Immune cells are responsible for the cellular immune reaction. Different types of immune cells exist: The main types found in circulating blood are: lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes. When circulating immune complexes (CIC) are formed, mainly granulocytes are attracted and these destroy the CIC by releasing oxygen radicals and proteases that “dissolve” the CIC.
An immune complex is a combination of an antigen and an antibody.
An immune reaction is a bodily defence reaction that recognises an invading substance (an antigen: such as a virus, fungus, bacteria or a transplanted organ) and produces antibodies specifically against that antigen.
An in vitro diagnostic is a method of performing a diagnostic test outside of a living body in an artificial environment, usually a laboratory. Everyday examples of in vitro testing include checking blood for signs of infections, or urine for the presence of glucose. The expression ‘in vitro’ comes from Latin, literally meaning “within the glass”. The name reflects the fact that historically such tests were conducted in glass vessels, such as test tubes.
The human immune system is mainly built up of the innate immune system (see below) and the adaptive immune system (see above), which mutually work together to fight foreign invaders.
Inflammatory mediators are substances released by immune cells during inflammation. They provide a mechanism for cells of the immune system to “talk” to one another, in order to coordinate a response.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system, is the “first line of defence”. Innate immune systems provide immediate defence against infection. Among others, the phagocytic cells – including neutrophils or granulocytes – function within the immune system by identifying and eliminating pathogens that might cause infection.
Insulin is an essential hormone that has many actions within the body. Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body produces insulin but does not use it effectively. When people have insulin resistance, glucose builds up in the blood instead of being absorbed by the cells, leading to type II diabetes or prediabetes. Insulin resistance can lead to a variety of serious health disorders.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder of unknown cause. The most common symptoms of IBS include abdominal cramping or pain, bloating and gassiness and altered bowel habits.
A lipemic blood sample contains increased amounts of lipids called triglycerides. If present in excess they create a milky white serum. They are normally present in the blood after eating. The most common preanalytical cause of lipemia is inadequate time of blood sampling after the meal.
The human small intestine does most of the digesting of the foods we eat. In case of a malabsorption syndrome, the patient’s small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from foods. Causes of malabsorption syndromes include celiac disease, lactose intolerance, genetic diseases and certain medicines. Symptoms of different malabsorption syndromes can vary. They often include chronic diarrhoea, abnormal stool, weight loss and gas.
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions (increased blood pressure, a high blood sugar level, excess body fat around the waist and abnormal cholesterol levels) that occur together. It is a serious health condition that presents a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke and diseases related to fatty build-ups in artery walls. The underlying causes of metabolic syndrome include overweight and obesity, physical inactivity and genetic factors.
Mucous membrane is a thin layer of skin that covers some parts of the human body and produces mucus to prevent itself from becoming dry. It forms the lining of various body passages that communicate with the air, such as the respiratory, genitourinary and alimentary tracts including the mouth, nasal passages, vagina and urethra.
Mycosis is an inflammatory condition caused by a fungus that invades the tissues, causing superficial, subcutaneous, or systemic disease. Mycoses are common and a variety of environmental and physiological conditions can contribute to the development of fungal diseases.
Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids that are essential nutrients for health. Human beings need omega-3 fatty acids for numerous normal body functions, such as controlling blood clotting and building cell membranes in the brain. Since human bodies cannot make omega-3 fats, we must get them through food. Omega-3 fatty acids are also associated with many health benefits, including protection against heart disease and possibly stroke.
Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful microorganisms, bacteria, and dead or dying cells. They are essential for fighting infections and for subsequent immunity.
A skin prick test, also called a puncture or scratch test, checks for immediate allergic reactions to as many as 40 different substances at once. This test is usually done to identify allergies to pollen, mould, pet dander, dust mites and foods. Prick tests are used as confirmation tests for IgE.
Elimination and provocation are important building blocks for ImuPro. During the elimination phase, one strictly avoids all foodstuffs with elevated IgG levels. Once the symptoms are significantly reduced, the provocation diet begins; the avoided foodstuffs can be gradually reintroduced again. This helps to identify the food which really caused health problems – these “trigger” foods may cause a specific symptom or lead to an increase in body weight overnight.
Psoriasis is a common and chronically incurable but treatable skin disorder. “Plaque psoriasis” is the most common form and appears as elevated plaques of red skin covered with silvery scale that may itch or burn. The affected areas are usually found on the arms, legs, trunk, or scalp but may be found on any part of the skin. The most typical areas are the knees, elbows and lower back.
Allergic rhinitis is an inflammation of the inside of the nose caused by an allergen, such as pollen, dust, mould or flakes of skin from certain animals.
Systemic means relating to or affecting the entire body or an entire organism. A systemic disease such as diabetes can affect the whole body.
Tachycardia refers to an abnormally fast resting heart rate – usually at least 100 beats per minute. The threshold of a normal heart rate (pulse) is generally based on the person’s age. Tachycardia can be dangerous, depending on how hard the heart has to work.
A TNF inhibitor or blocker is a pharmaceutical drug that suppresses response to tumour necrosis factor (TNF), which is part of the inflammatory response. TNF is involved in clinical problems associated with autoimmune and immune-mediated disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease or psoriasis. So a TNF inhibitor may be used in their treatment.
With ImuPro, all the foods one is allowed to eat can be used to create an individual diet in a 4-day cycle or rotation. If you eat a certain selection of foods on the first day, you should avoid eating these for the next three days. This helps the body to heal from current IgG food allergies while reducing the possibility of forming new ones. It also ensures that the body gets all the vitamins and minerals one would expect from a varied diet. On the 5th day, the food may be consumed again.